Archive for the ‘DIYbio’ Category

DIY Webcam Microscope – SG style

In DIYbio, DIYbio hardware, Uncategorized on June 22, 2014 at 8:03 am

The DIY Webcam Microscope movement becomes global – from Switzerland, Indonesia,  Taiwan and finally, to Singapore! DIYbio SG attempted to create their very own DIYbio SG Webcam Microscope on Wednesday evening, 11 June 2014. Building a low-cost webcam microscope allows us to embody citizen scientists’ spirits along with the many other ways one can possibly embrace this DIY, DIWO, DIT movement.



Logitech Webcam (unsure of model)

3 bolts

6 nuts

1 empty transparent box and lid

Cardboard box



Electric Drill

Varied sized Open Eye Screw


Pliers (either slip-joint of fixedjoint however, a long-nose plier is suitable)

Laptop (for checking usability of bought webcam)



Building of DIY Webcam Microscope – SG style:


All is good with Logitech Webcam!


The first step was to reverse the lens embedded in the webcam. Unscrew the camera and carefully pry out the embedded lens with a pair of pliers, we recommend a pair of needle-nose pliers. If not, use a needle like we did.

Note: Be careful not to destroy the image sensor.




The second step required us to build a structure which supports the reversed-lens and its supporting circuitry.


Eugene, “This IKEA drill is actually is worth its price.”

Next, we used open-eye screws to drill holes into our empty plastic box. As we did not have wing nuts, we had to rethink of alternatives which replicate the mechanics of a wing nut in order for us to create an adjustable microscope stage.


The team thought of using 3 sets of 2 nuts and a bolt to move the stage up and down the shank of our bolts. The bolts were held in place by 2 nuts. It might not result in the smoothest movement of the stage but it was what we could do without the convenience of the wing nut.


On our first attempt, we realise our webcam was not working the way we would imagine a webcam microscope to work. The image was not magnified when the sample was brought close to the webcam. An image of the colony of mould in Eugene’s Lipton tea could not be captured with our DIY webcam microscope.


Alexander found out that we have not reversed the webcam lens. It may be good to make a note (paste a sticker, do a marking or spit or not) so that you will not lose track of which side you will need in a reversed-lens webcam microscope.

And it finally worked!


Close-up image of a Yellow LED


The next trail of DIY Webcam Microscope will include a Sony PS3 eye which Lifepatch has recommended to us when making a Webcam Microscope as it has a faster frame rate – “120 frames per second”.  A customized SG Webcam Microscope PCB with appropriate number of LED lights will also be ideal for future hacking/making/playing among DIYbio SG members. Till then!


DIY Webcam Microscopy – DIYbio SG:

Host venue:
Wiscloud Technology Pte. Ltd. At Oxybiz Hub 2

Cindy Lin


Alexander Yang

Eugene Ng

Wee Kiang Yeo

Pauline Ng

Andreas Schlegel

Samanatha Kjm

Huey Ting

Kate Lu

Adeline Seah

Cindy Lin


There will be a few more sessions to make more microscopes (successful or not really doesn’t matter) and we hope that anyone who is interested or can make it the next time join us in more hacking, making, sharing and playing DIY, DIWO, DIT style!



In DIYbio, DIYbio hardware on May 20, 2014 at 11:44 pm

Building of the openPCR kit

4 components:
The Lid (Metal lid, plastic knob)
The Core (Heat sink, fan, peltier heater, 16-well PCR block)
The Face (Mounting block with LCD screen)
The Body (Casing, Arduino Uno, OpenPCR board)

Manual for building of openPCR:

After building the lid and the core, the face was mounted, body added to it and everything was wired up. (Total time spent: ~5hrs)


Final step of building it, connecting all the wires from the lid, the core and the face.

The openPCR could not be powered up via USB port.

LCD screen powered up through power plug


The 16-well PCR tube holder is heated up using the openPCR app downloaded onto the laptop. 🙂

The next step will be testing the openPCR using PCR mastermix.


OpenPCR kit:
Pauline Ng

Host venue:
Independent Archive and Resource centre

Alexander Yang
Samantha Kjm

Alexander Yang
Eugene Ng
Pauline Ng
Andreas Schlegel
Samanatha Kjm
Huey Ting
Cindy Lin
Wee Kiang Yeo

Many thanks to all who have not been named but made this event happen and for those who have missed it, we will have more activities with the openPCR.

DIYbio flower revolution in Asia

In DIYbio on February 13, 2011 at 11:45 am

The most successful of these DIYbio activities in the rest of Asia is related to the famous art centre in Yogyakarta called “House of Natural Fiber” (HONF). In 2009 and 2010 they organized a series of workshops led by artists (Marc Dusseiller, Shiho Fukuhara, Georg Tremmel)  in cooperation with the Microbiology Lab of the Agriculture faculty in the Gadjah Mada University (UGM) in which they hacked webcams and even Sony’s PS3 Eye into digital microscope, used them as haemacytometers and bacteria counters and even explored various other alternative functions for micro-organism detection. They also worked on simple scientific protocols as a response to urgent social needs and protest tools against government policies. HONF’s recent project “Intelligent Bacteria – Saccharomyces cerevisiae” was nominated for the prestigious Transmediale 2011 award because of this original use of scientific protocols as forms of a peaceful protest. The collective created a simple kit for alcohol brewing and distilling of Indonesian fruit as a response to the newly imposed tax laws which tripled the price of wine and even beer and pushed the local population into lethal experiments with distilling and brewing their own alcohol.

Similar to the initiative in the Philippines (Biomodd and BedroomLab), the DIYbio in Yogyakarta has a strange obsession with flowers and plants. While in the Philippines the plants are used for building future sustainable server farms (Biomodd), in Indonesia fruit and plants are used basically as a political medium for resolving social issues and questioning the global biotech networks.  Following Japan, the flowers are even used for supporting the Creative Commons License in the first ever biopiracy protest flower revolution – the “Common Flowers: Flowers Commons” project. The project which started in Japan and Germany was only promoted in Indonesia but offers a very interesting case study of global biotech networks and the grassroot biopiracy response by developing nations around the world because of GM patents.

The Japanese and Indonesia biopirates basically reversed the “jailed” and genetically modified and copyrighted blue carnations and released them back to nature and to the land where these flowers originated and where they belong. Since these plants are officially considered not harmful, it is not illegal to release them into the environment, but the Japanese company that owns the patent decided to avoid public reactions against GM and outsourced their “production” to South America. The blue Moondust carnations were developed by the Japanese beer-brewing company, Suntory, as the first commercially available genetically engineered flowers, and although the company was granted permission to grow them in Japan, they simply outsourced the production to Columbia, from where they ship them as cut-flowers to the worldwide markets.

In the “Common Flowers” project the artist collective (BCL) reversed the plant growing process by technically cloning new plants from the purchased cut-flowers using Plant Tissue Culture methods. Using DIY biotech methods involving everyday kitchen utensils and materials purchasable from supermarkets and drugstores, they “freed” the GM carnations back into nature in undisclosed locations to support the idea of creative commons and even bio-sharing: “By freeing (‘jail-breaking’) the flower from its destiny as a cut-flower and establishing a feral and more ‘natural’ population of blue carnations, the flower will be given a chance to reconnect to the general gene-pool and to join again the evolution through natural selection. Common Flowers hopes to touch is the question of patents on plants and on lifeforms in general. In particular what form of legal protection for their plants was granted and does the act of simply growing plants constitutes a violation of Suntory’s copyright. Is this reverse Bio-piracy?” (Fukuhara &  Tremmel, 2010)

The more socially and critically involved hacking is typical for the rest of the Asia DIYbio scene (except Singapore) because of its close ties with the EU based initiatives. The best definition of this style of DIYbio hacking is given in one recent interview with the BCL collective that created the “Common Flowers”: “Hacking has to be effortlessly elegant. A small gesture with a big outcome. With Bio-hacking in particular we mean the attempt to regain the power about our shared biological destiny. We need to get involved, we need to understand, we need to learn. Not only we as artists, but we as a society.”  (Gfader, 2010) The strategy of “small gestures with a big outcome” uses a non technological jargon to explain the basic low-tech and high-impact strategy of the DIYbio movement which in the Asian context uses scientific protocols are used as a form of political protest and social empowerment and not only as a medium for technological progress and scientific advancement. HONF as a new media art laboratory running ever since 1999 in Yogyakarta implements such simple, community and open source based technologies to improve the daily lives of people there and agriculture is a very important part of this.   Also in the Philippines, the DIYbio activities that are just starting around the SABAW Media Art Kitchen and their “BedroomLab” workshops and meetings are targeting agricultural “hacks” in the form of urban farming, bio-fuels and solutions dealing with ecological issues. The interest in plants and digital technologies that we can follow in all local projects is becoming something of a distinctive sign of the Asian DIYbio scene.

Even the very successful Biomodd [LBA2] Philippines project that was started in 2009 as an art initiative by a Belgian artist Angelo Vermeulen works with the idea of bringing plants and computers together for socially and ecologically sustainable future. The Biomodd project started as an art idea that soon developed into serious, community driven research project into issues of symbiosis of biology and electronics as sustainability solution. Through a partnership with the University of the Philippines Open University (UPOU) and a whole range of Filipino cultural partners with more than 100 Filipino artists, scientists, engineers, gamers, craftsmen, volunteers and students, the project was able to attract a critical mass which turned it into an international success story supported by the famous TED foundations. Over the course of eight months an installation was created that literally fused a living ecosystem of plants with a modified computer network. The monumental sculpture contains system of recycled computers intertwined with an aquaponics system that serve as cooling devices for the computers use for various games etc. The synergy between technology and biology brings together computers, algae and plants but also various people that took part in this open source educational and art project which involved the public in a serious ecological debates about the sustainable future.

The DIYbio movement in Asia is socially oriented and driven and involves actors that are closely connected to local even indigenous cultures. We can clearly see this in the case of the “Intelligent Bacteria – Saccharomyces cerevisiae” project by the HONF collective. The project is offering a solution to a serious social problem related to the unsafe and unsterilized alcohol production that leads to dangerous methanol poisonings which are killing people in Indonesia on a monthly bases.  Due to the regulation from the Ministry of Financial Department that increased duty on alcohol in April 2010, local traditional alcohol drinks became popular again and started to appear in the markets in large quantities, often containing very dangerous methanol substances. Artists together with researchers at the Microbiology department of UGM in Yogyakarta conducted a research in introducing a proper and safe fermentation technology for the general public. The DIYbio in Indonesia basically democratized a science protocol that will make the home fermentation of alcohol safe. This protocol supports an old tradition of fermentation that is more part of the indigenous cultures in Indonesia rather than the official religion. Through a publically available kit and instructional video the artists and scientists involved in this project are trying to connect traditional knowledge of brewing with modern technologies that make the production of alcohol safe but also to open to discussions. The project has an artistic aspect in the form of an acoustic installation that responds to the high number of poisonings and deaths of alcohol consumption in Indonesia. What makes the project outstanding is how DIYbio and open source approach to science connected contemporary art strategies with local and traditional knowledge and culture. This offers a specific form of science communication based on appreciation on local and traditional knowledge and culture related to alcohol production and knows how to connect them with modern technologies and methods.

These examples of experimental form of research, investment and even artistic creativity show clearly how the “low-tech but high-impact” logic of the DIYbio movement operates in various contexts and how it can connect science, culture and society in ways that traditional STS policy discussions could not even imagine. The artistic and scientific solutions and protocols are affecting but also involving large groups of citizens and stakeholders in the process of the research, creation and production. Whether in USA, EU or Asia the DIYbio revolution involves open source laser cutters and other open hardware tools that can create cheap lab equipment, synthetic biology recipes and other protocols that spread like cooking recipes, self-organized clinical trials and other community related projects that are challenging not only in technological but also in social sense. The strategies and interests of these groups are starting to converge into one informal “pop biotech” network between ASIA, USA and EU that is very different from the official flows of knowledge and expertise in the biotech industry but which also reflects many of the common issues and problems with biotechnologies.

DIYbio in Singapore – preliminary notes

In DIYbio, Food Hacking on February 13, 2011 at 11:44 am

The first DIYbio event in Singapore which was organized in July 2010 also took place in the first and only Hackerspace in Asia. The Singaporean Hackerspace is based in the traditional Malay area of the city, Kampong Glam, which represents well the paradoxes involved in the local movement. Kampong Glam is known for its bohemian and very relaxed atmosphere even if its difficult to find a restaurant serving alcohol beverages because of the strict halal policy. It is however one of the most popular and authentic places with a unique ability to integrate and accommodate the most traditional and the most bohemian cultures. Western tourists, local expats and alcohol loving Singaporeans enjoy the authentic feeling of this place and simply develop a special strategy how to move around by having a dinner in one of the Turkish or Egyptian restaurants outside in the pleasant tropical night while enjoying the drinks later in the air-conditioned Blue Jazz café and club. The club is also used for the monthly Hackerspace events that introduce various interesting local businesses, research and creative projects, so called “blinkBL-NK” nights.

The paradoxes represented by Kampong Glam mixture of religion and hedonism, tradition and innovation, are mirrored well in the local Hackerspace and DIYbio scene. The Singaporean DIYbio that started as a gathering of artists, philosophers and scientists “doing strange things in their bathrooms and kitchens” rather quickly transformed into “Biotech Start-up Nights” in the next three months. While in the original meeting people acquired some knowledge on how to hack rice cookers and create sous-vide cooking devices, how to shoot fly porn with hacked webcams as microscopes and support one local evolutionary biologist in his research, later meetings became networking sessions for the local (missing) biotech startup scene.  Business and culture, government and community projects  in Singapore do not exclude each other but they do not really support each other either. The whole dynamics surrounding the local Hackerspace and DIYbio movement repeats the paradoxes that are so well represented by the Kampong Glam area.

For example, the most serious activity of the Singaporean DIYbio became a rather geeky campaign against the government health program promoting balanced diet but not for reasons which we would expect in such anti-government campaigns which usually protect the rights of the individuals to choose their own diet.  The local Hackerspace responded to the government “command” asking citizens to eat more veggies and grains with even more extreme technocratic and “scientific” advocacy for the so called “paleo diet” based on meat consumption and even molecular gastronomy techniques of “sous-vide cooking”. The main local proponent of the paleo diet and a sous-vide cooking guru, Meng Weng Wong, who is also one of the leading figures of the local Hackerspace, simply started a campaign against the “carbohydrates” conspiracy and other reliques of “agriculture”. He subscribes to the belief in the evolutionary connection between our genes and meat consumption which supposedly developed in the original hunter-gatherer society and which agriculture messed up with grains. For this reason, he is fighting the government camping by organizing large sous-vide meat dinners and parties and using his blog to promote this diet by giving detailed descriptions of his cooking experiments and techniques. The DIYbio in Singapore repeats and mirrors the paradoxes involved in Kampong Glam’s unique bland of traditional and bohemia culture in this unique combination of paleolithic ideology and modern sous-vide technology, of very old food genes and very modern cooking practices, and maybe defines certain Singaporean uniqueness.

The Singaporean DIYbio interest in molecular gastronomy and issues of food and health are also a response to a fashion trend and nutritional discussions which are possible only in a very wealthy society.  The most notable DIYbio initiative in the rest of Asia, especially in Indonesia and in the Philippines, have very different agenda but they also follow closely the EU model. The DIYbio experiments and events in EU are closely connected to the local squat and art centers and to the BioArt projects rather than to the Hackerspace ethos. These global DIYbio networks that are emerging in Asia for this reason offer two,  almost opposing versions of how to involve the public, the citizens in science and technology development. While the US model of Hackerspaces and DIYbio labs is based on the ethos of entrepreneurship and independence from the strong state, which strangely is possible even in the technocratic Singaporean context, the EU model is based on publically funded art projects and the tradition of squat cultures. While in the US model of DIYbio, the citizens are basically shareholders in science and technology projects that have a potential to provide benefits to the early adopters, in the EU model, the citizens are more stakeholders that can have wide range of reasons and interests (often critical) in the biosciences and the biotechnologies. While the Singaporean DIYbio follows the US model in terms of its interests and models of work (Hackerspaces), the rest of Asia is more involved in the critical appropriation of biotech protocols that are closely connected to the strategies typical of the EU art centers and squats.


In DIYbio on February 13, 2011 at 11:33 am

Special panel at the Genomics Institute in association with the two day international workshop on

“Asian Biopoleis: Biotechnology & Biomedicine as Emergent Forms of Life and Practice”

6‐8 JANUARY 2011

organised by Asia Research Institute & National University of Singapore


Chairperson Ryan BISHOP

10:00 Sandra Soo‐Jin LEE
Center for Biomedical Ethics,
Stanford University
Race, Risk and Recreation in Personal Genomics

10:25 Takashi KIDO
Riken Genesis. Co., Ltd.
Genetics and Artificial Intelligence for
Personal Genome Services

11:15 Denisa KERA
Communications and New Media Programme,
National University of Singapore
From DIYGenomics to DIYBio: Emerging Citizen
Science Incubators and Projects in Southeast Asia

Communities of people monitoring, sharing and making sense of various “objective” and “scientific” data in their
everyday life are exploring new and unexpected global networks around lowtech biotechnologies and biomedicine. As similar communities evolve globally there have been shifts in scientific knowledge bases and increased permeability to the boundaries of scientific knowledge. Movements such as Consumer Genomics, Citizen Science and DIYbio have the potential to radically transform and redefine the conduct and practice to scientific work in Singapore and Asia. Key questions that will be addressed through this panel include:
What is the state of the art in citizen science projects, consumer genomics services and various DIYbio initiatives?
What challenges do these consumer and publicly oriented services pose to the official biotech industry?
How these services operate on the global level and what type of exchanges are we witnessing between continents
and cultures?
Does challenging research happen only in professional labs or we are starting to witness an emergence of new
models of more communitybased research that will involve the public in the whole process?
What perspectives do these movements offer to the developing world?

DIYbio night at blinkBL_NK #9

In DIYbio on December 14, 2010 at 11:14 am

The theme of Novembers’ blinkBL_NK was BIOart and DIYbio


Photos from the event

Facebook for Your Genes and other Biosocial Interfaces
by Denisa Kera

Bio-Gifts: How Will We Accept and Respond to the Materials of Synthetic Biology?
by Tim Merritt

The Bio.Display Project
by Ákos Maróy



DIYbio presentation at the Science Museum

In DIYbio on December 13, 2010 at 11:07 am

November 16, 2010 a presentation at the Singapore Science Museum

DIY subcultures, novel forms of investment in innovation and research and even artistic creativity are converging and creating an informal “pop biotech” network between ASIA, USA and EU that is very different from the official flows of knowledge and expertise in the biotech industry. The global and emerging DIYbio movement is using open source laser cutters and other open hardware platforms for community labs, shares synthetic biology recipes, discusses DNA data and quantified selves and initiates self-organized clinical trials 2.0 and home molecular gastronomy experiments. Communities of people monitoring, sharing and making sense of various science protocols in their everyday life are exploring new and unexpected global networks around low-tech biotechnologies and biomedicine. What is the state of the art in citizen science projects, consumer genomics services and various DIYbio initiatives? What opportunities and challenges these services pose to the official biotech industry? How do they operate on the global level and what type of exchanges are we witnessing between continents and cultures? Does challenging research happen only in the professional labs or are we starting to witness an emergence of new models of community-based research that will involve the public? What perspectives do they offer to the developing world? A demonstration by Mr Wong Meng Weng ( on DIY molecular gastronomy on sous vide & sweeteners is included in this café’s programme.

DIYbio residency programme

In DIYbio on December 1, 2010 at 11:02 am

We have a new DIYbio space with a real garden and some local animals – bats, geckos, mice, weird birds etc.  were we can organize meetings and also host guests. In October 2010 we offered a one month residency to Akos Maroy who needed a place for his secret experiments.  He was also meeting local enthusiasts and giving talks on his DIYbio experiments with synthetic organisms and biodisplays.

Videos, pics and comments from the first DIYbio event

In DIYbio on July 30, 2010 at 11:19 am

Erwin Chan’s very generous coverage and kind reflections of our first event in July that  left  “a deeper sense of science beyond the laboratory and commercial influence”.

SCIENCE & TECH “KIBBUTZIM”: from early visions of Academy of Games and Pleasures to present day Hackerspaces, DIYbio Labs and Citizen Science Incubators

In DIYbio on July 20, 2010 at 8:21 am

Novel forms of community organised and financed science and technology labs revive the original idea on science, technology and public interactions envisioned by G. W. Leibniz in his famous “Odd Thought Concerning a New Sort of Exhibition (or rather, an Academy of Sciences ; September, 1675)”. In this original vision of the academy of sciences Leibniz ceases to discuss the advancement of sciences and technology in terms of metaphysical and philosophical issues of truth, limits of human mind or the nature of reality but defines science and technology by their ability to generate new ecologies of interest and influence, new institutions, networks and relations between different actors. Science, technology, business, art, entertainment, tourism are all part of an effort to raise human curiosity and wonder and transform the society. Leibniz’s prophetic vision of cosmopolitics modelled after his ontology of monads and interactions between different scales is a reality today in the case of hybrid organizations such as Ars Electronica in Linz, ZKM in Karlsruhe, FACT in Liverpool, Laboral in Gijón, numerous small centers around the world and alternative incubators (Hackerspace, The HUB) that connect art, design, technology and sciences in often playful and unexpected ways.  The various functions these spaces have, from the more obvious like popularization and presentation to the more professional like investment in innovation and more creative and experimental, turn cosmopolitics into practice and connect politics with design. These DIY and alternative places perform, foster and accelerate the ability of science and technology to serve different purposes and connect various actors in new networks and ecologies. The very democratic form of these institutions that support bottom-up and citizen science projects defines them as true cosmopolitical laboratories and defines cosmopolitics not only as experiments with novel networks between actors but more importantly between various scales.  The main issue of cosmopolitics for this reason is not a problem of the subject-object, animate-inanimate relations but issues of interaction between scales, relation between parts and newly defined wholes.

The alternative forms of incubators, open community labs  and high tech kibbutzim that are self-funded and organized by the researchers and entrepreneurs themselves like Hackerspace ( , The Hub (,  FabLabs etc. demonstrate well Leibniz’s early thoughts on self-supporting and autonomous “clearing houses for inventions” but also direct involvement of the public in the production of scientific results. After brainstorming on the various functions of his Academy, Leibniz is very pragmatic about the type of business model for such future and science and technology oriented institutions: “The use of this enterprise to the public as well as to the individual, would be greater than might be imagined. As to the public, it would open people’s eyes, stimulate inventions, present beautiful sights, instruct people with an endless number of useful or ingenious novelties. All those who produce a new invention or ingenious design might come and find a medium for getting their inventions known, and obtain some profit from that. It would be a general clearing house for all inventions, and would become a museum of everything that could be imagined” (Leibniz in Wiener 1940, 239).  He is even anticipating the membership- fee model which is common in these alternative incubators and studio places “preferably different rooms like palace shops in the same house where private parties having rented the rooms, would show the rarities” (Leibniz in Wiener 1940, 236), and in the marginal note he adds a definition of what we call incubators nowadays: “Having a fund, there would be a perpetual income from interest and from other sources, such as the formation of companies for new manufactures” (Leibniz in Wiener 1940, 236). Leibniz believed that it is good to bring people from different backgrounds together and connect them, so the people that are good in “defraying expenses” will work with people that could “constantly invent new things” which is exactly the model under which these new spaces operate.

What is intriguing about this model of science and technology involvement with business, art and the general public, is the importance that Leibniz ascribes to its temporal aspects, to the events and performances that take place in such spaces. The vivid descriptions of the silly and purely entertaining events such as the “Ballets of horses. Races round a ring and Turkish head…. Power of a mirror to kindle a fire..” (Leibniz in Wiener 1940, 237) are coupled with more serious ones that remind us of today’s TEDx conferences which Leibniz would describe as “comedies of the styles, debates of each country, a Hindu comedy, a Turkish, a Persian, etc. Comedies of the trades, one for each trade, which would show their skills, peculiarities, jokes, master-pieces, special and ridiculous styles. In other comedies, Italian and French clowns who would perform their buffooneries“ (Leibniz in Wiener 1940, 238) or on another place as  “Amusing and colloquial disputes” (Leibniz in Wiener 1940, 237). TEDs(x) conferences as this popular form of science performances that fuels the interest and investment in science and technology today shares the same values that Leibniz was expecting, the global and complex ecology of interests  and connections across the society, from the public to the state actors, that he was hoping for.  The academy and the museum in Leibniz’s understanding is basically like his monads, an expression of a new type of ontology of networks or fractals. These institutions and monads represent, mirror and interact with the whole in every part so that the “smallest particle of matter is a world of creatures, living beings, animals, entelechies, souls (more monads)”  and “a garden and a pond of gardens and ponds” (Leibniz in Wiener 1940, 66).  It is this ontology of monads that is trying to resolve the issue of the relation between parts and wholes by simply relativising any scales and ascribing agency to all of them.

Wiener, Philip P.,  “Leibniz’s Project of a Public Exhibition of Scientific Inventions,” Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Apr., 1940), pp. 232-240,